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Human Memory Research Mistake

The human memory research mistake is that science has not yet focused on explaining its massive capacity and precision. While memory must reside in the nervous system, the mathematical underpinnings of science prevent it from seeing the nerve cell as a pattern recognition entity, which can remember and precisely recall patterns on a galactic scale.

Leslie Vosshall reports that, in her lab, ordinary volunteers, (not wine tasters or perfumers), could clearly distinguish between different combinations of 128 odor molecules, indicating an average human ability to differentiate between 1 trillion smells. Combinatorial codes can theoretically store a galactic memory and recall it with infinite precision. This view has not been followed up by science in its research.

Human and animal memory involves the ability to remember and recognize millions of images. In the muscle movements for habitual activities from running to speaking, the system stores massive combinatorial memories. Yet, the most important area for memory research has been for simple remembered responses in fear conditioning. In these experiments, mice and rats learn to avoid a mild electric shock to their feet, while they move around a small chamber. Once learned, animals do not forget. Placed back in the chamber a day, or even a month later, they remember to avoid the shock. By focusing on this simple "Dial 100" response, science fails to seek explanations for trillions of other memory links.

  • Science focuses on the storage of strong traumatic memories, instead of faint episodic memories.
  • Long term potentiation is merely a speed dial link in the system.
  • PKMzeta also deals with critical memories.
  • Dial 100 ability cannot explain the ability to store 10,000 images sequentially.
  • Branch growth to remember millions of images sounds more like cancer. 
  • Damage to the hippocampus does not cause a loss of past memories.
  • Combinatorial codes can store astronomically large memories with microscopic precision.

Could An Amazing Algorithm Have Stunning Control Over Your Mind?
This is what happens when an engineer researches the mind. Way back in 1989, the writer, an engineer, catalogued how the ELIMINATION approach of an AI Expert System could reveal a way by which the nervous system could store and retrieve astronomically large memories.  That historic insight is central to the six irresistible premises presented in this website. 

Behind the scenes, these premises conceal an eye-opening revelation.  About the incredible speed of intuition.  A physician is aware of thousands of diseases and their related symptoms.  How does he note a symptom and focus on a single disease in less than half a second?  How could he identify Disease X out of 8000 diseases with just a glance?  

First, the total born and learned knowledge available to the doctor could not exist anywhere other than as the stored/retrieved data within the 100 billion neurons in his brain.  The perceptions, sensations, feelings and physical activities of the doctor could only be enabled by the electrical impulses flowing through the axons of those neurons.  The data enabling that process could be stored as digital combinations.

Second, combinatorial decisions of neurons cannot be made by any entity other than the axon hillock, which decides the axonal output of each neuron.  The hillock receives hundreds of inputs from other neurons.  Each hillock makes the pivotal neuronal decision about received inputs within 5 milliseconds.  A
xon hillocks could be storing digital combinations.  It could be adding each new incoming digital combination to its memory store.  The hillock could fire impulses, if it matched a stored combination. If not, it could inhibit further impulses.  Using stored digital data to make decisions about incoming messages could make the axon hillocks intelligent.

Third, combinations are reported to enable a powerful coding mode for axon hillocks.  Olfactory combinatorial data is known (Nobel Prize 2004) to store memories for millions of smells.  Each one of 100 billion axon hillocks have around a 1000 links  to other neurons.  The hillocks can mathematically store more combinations than there are stars in the sky. Each new digital combination could be adding a new relationship link.  In this infinite store, specific axon hillocks could be storing all the symptom = disease (S=D) links known to the doctor as digital combinations.

Fourth, instant communication is possible in the nervous system.  Within five steps, information in one hillock can reach all other relevant neurons.  Just 20 Ms for global awareness.  Within the instant the doctor observes a symptom, 
feedback and feed forward links could inform every S=D link of the presence of the symptom. Only the S=D link of Disease X could be recalling the combination and recognizing the symptom.

Fifth, on not recognizing the symptom, all other S=D hillocks could be instantly inhibiting their impulses. The S=D links of Disease X could be continuing to fire. Those firing S=D link would be recalling past complaints, treatments and signs of Disease X, confirming the diagnosis.  This could be enabling axon hillocks to identify Disease X out of 8000 in milliseconds.  Eliminating improbable (unrecognized) prospects to arrive at a possible (recognized in the past) solution powers the powerful inductive logic of the mind!

Worldwide interest in this website acknowledges its rationale. Not metaphysical theories, but processing of digital memories in axon hillocks could be explaining innumerable mysteries of the mind.  Over three decades, this website has been assembling more and more evidence of the manipulation of emotional and physical behaviors by narrowly focused digital pattern recognition.  It has also received over 2 million page views from over 150 countries.

Human Memory Research Mistake
What Are Neural Speed Dial Links?
Nature created “speed dial links” between nerve cells to remember notably dangerous situations. Neural plasticity grew new branches to support such links. LTP established quick response systems. High frequency stimulation of the dendrites of a neuron were known to improve the sensitivity of the synaptic nerve junctions. Such activity was seen to be "remembered" by the cell through greater sensitivity at specific inputs. Harvard scientists listed 117 molecules involved at the synaptic junctions which could increase such sensitivity. These chemicals assisted in linking neural paths to create increased levels of activity between neurons in different areas. Can a few speed dial links explain the phenomenal range and depth of human memory?

Human Memory Research Mistake
How Does PKMzeta Affect Memory Formation?

Recently, Dr. Sacktorat discovered a substance called PKMzeta, which was present and activated in neighboring cells with speed-dial links. The PKMzeta molecules formed into precise fingerlike connections among brain cells that were strengthened. The molecules remained in place to sustain the speed dial links, which enabled heightened responses to danger. However, when a drug, which interferes with PKMzeta was injected directly into the brain, the animals forgot their fear. The animals even forgot a strong disgust they had developed for a taste after the administration of the drug. It was hoped that by disabling LTP, the drug could blunt painful memories and addictive urges. The ability of LTP to handle urgent messages does not explain how the system remembers last night's dinner menu.

Human Memory Research Mistake -
Is LTP The Basis For Memory Formation?

While LTP can establish “speed dial links,” combinatorial memories are required for the galaxy of events, remembered by the nervous system daily. People are reported to be able to recognize every one of 10,000 images shown to them at 1 second intervals. Such memories involve combinatorial arrangements of millions of pixels. Even habits require memories. The intricate movements of centipedes and horses need colossal memories. The graceful steps of a ballet dancer are learned through tedious practice. They require millions of motor memories repeating thousands of time a second. Such independent combinatorial memories are stored at such speeds and deal with memories of the whole nervous system for daily events. The “Dial 100” character of LTP cannot be the basis for such memories.

Human Memory Research Mistake
What Is Branching?

Memory research follows many leads. One clue relates to the branched inputs of nerve cells, called dendrites. Branch growth is assisted by a protein called cypin. Some memory disabilities were related to deficits in cypin. So, one possibility was that nerve cells grew new branches to store memory. New branches could represent added memory. But, when the size and scale of human memory is considered, the idea of branches, however microscopic, growing to add memories sounds perilously cancerous.

Human Memory Research Mistake 
What Is The Role Of The Hippocampus?

Damage to the hippocampus, a component of a region of thebrain called the limbic system, is known to cause patients to forget ongoing events within a few seconds. But, incidents from childhood and early adult life were still remembered. Memory had faded from a couple of years prior to the event that caused damage to the hippocampus. Older memories were still retained by the patient even without the hippocampus. Research has identified the role of the organ in storing long term contextual episodic memories all over the cortical regions.

Human Memory Research Mistake
Can Maths Explain Human Memory?

The brilliance of the mind can only be explained through the pattern recognition process. But, since scientists favor maths, neurons, the basic building blocks of human intelligence, are assumed to be computers. Nerve cells are presumed to compute, not recognize. So, memory research failed to note the significance of neurons in the discovery of combinatorial codes. Combinatorial codes can store astronomically large volumes of data and can explain the immense wisdom of the mind. This website suggests that the mind functions by remembering and recognizing patterns. Combinatorial codes store human memory for both events and for habitual muscular responses.

This page was last updated on 31-Dec-2013

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