How Does The Mind Work?

How does the mind work? The wondrous capabilities of the mind pivot around its dazzling method for exchanging signals between its alert neural organs. That method enables over 100 billion neurons, assembled in these organs, to use vast inherited and acquired memories for survival. Together, those organs are able to perceive the world, understand it and carry us through life. Our conscious experiences open but a small window into their achievements.

The process begins, when a few neural organs convert sound, light, taste, smell and touch into biochemical and electrical signals. Other judicious organs categorize these signals as objects and events.  Still more respond to recognized events with the emotional signals, which control our motor systems. We have little awareness of the massive interchange of these signals. But, a few of them mysteriously provide us our conscious view of our perceptions and actions.

The neural organs store millions of years of wisdom. As an example, there are unique receptors in the olfactory bulb, which signal the recognition of toxic molecules in the air. Evolution granted the neurons in the bulb an amazing memory for those combinations (Nobel Prize, 2004) of its receptor signals, which signify life threatening odors. If the bulb identifies a foul smell, similar memories in other neural organs make us respond with a disgust related response. We feel disgust and become conscious of our impulsive withdrawal from the spoiled food. Like the images on a computer monitor, a few such glimpses of complex internal signals cascade through our consciousness.

  • Pattern recognition by the mind identified by science with the discovery of how the olfactory bulb recognizes odors.
  • Animal development began, when an electrically activated nervous system replaced chemical interactions in the survival processes of groups of cells.
  • Nerve cells in the Hydra recognized and responded to patterns in the environment.
  • Receptors in the body monitor a massive range of air and liquid molecules, light patterns, sound waves and critical bodily events.
  • Those sensory patterns are recognized by neural organs as internal and external events.
  • Recognition of events by the amygdala and the insula trigger a wide range of emotions.
  • Emotions control focused attitudes and behaviors.
  • Intuition is a process, which uses elimination (inhibition) to focus the incredible wisdom of the mind on a single task.
  • Among myriad neural organs, the prefrontal regions grant us a rational view of the world, and the ability to control our minds through the focus of attention.

This hypothesis is unique in accounting for the speed of human intuition; in examining the future of Artificial Intelligence (AI). in suggesting methods for controlling the mind. These thoughts have been gathering millions of page views from all around the world.  The 1989 beginning of this exciting mission was a Prolog AI program.  It could diagnose 8 diseases hinged on the user entering answers to a long string of questions.  In contrast, a doctor could identify a disease out of 8000, without even asking a single question, with just a glance. People were streets ahead in spotting patterns. Was the mind using a shortcut?

The Prolog program could diagnose 8 diseases, which shared 13 symptoms. It used an algorithm, a step by step procedure, for the diagnosis. Out of curiosity, I began testing an alternate algorithm in a spreadsheet.  Its first step was to SELECT all diseases WITH a particular symptom. But, instead, the algorithm would DELETE all diseases WITHOUT the symptom. The variation related to an unintended twist in its "if/then" logic.

So, when I clicked "Yes" for one particular symptom to test the first step, the spreadsheet DELETED 7 out of the 8 diseases, leaving behind just one disease.  Surprisingly, that disease was indicated by that symptom.  In just one step, it had given the correct diagnosis. As with the doctor, it was a split second verdict!  In essence, the algorithm had simply ELIMINATED all diseases without the symptom.  Was elimination from a known list the trick used by nature for its speed? Could that process be intuition?

Could elimination provide a valid search strategy? I tasked a programmer to write the code for an ambitious new Expert System for 225 eye diseases. Its algorithm eliminated both irrelevant diseases and their connected questions, for each answer. I presented the Expert System to a panel of doctors. "It identified Angular Conjunctivitis, without asking a single stupid question," said a doctor. The AI algorithm was satisfactorily diagnosing all the eye diseases in the textbook! The algorithm was a potent tool. It took me a while in figuring out how the mind of a doctor could be doing split second diagnosis.

Can An Algorithm Be Controlling The Mind?
I am not a physician, but an engineer. Way back in 1989, I listed how the ELIMINATION approach of an AI Program could be uncovering a mystery of the mind.  How could a doctor be instantly identifying Disease X out of 8000 diseases?  How could the doctor's mind isolate a single disease/symptom (D/S link out of trillions of possible links in less than half a second? 

This list of 6 unique new premises could be explaining the enigma and revealing an exciting glimpse into the mind:

First, the total born and learned knowledge available to the doctor could only be existing as the stored/retrieved data within the 100 billion neurons in his brain.

Second, axon hillocks could be storing that knowledge as combinatorial memories. Residing at the head of the axonal output of each neuron is its axon hillock, receiving thousands of inputs from other neurons. Each hillock is known to be making the pivotal neuronal decision about received inputs within 5 milliseconds. The hillock could be opting to fire impulses, if it recalled a combination. If not, it could be opting to inhibit further impulses.  Or, it could be recording new combinations, adding to its memory store.  These choices and recordings were programming axon hillocks to logically store and respond to vast memories, making the mind intelligent.

Third, combinations are known to be providing nature with its most powerful mode of coding. Science has been reporting the neuronal memories provided by combinations for millions of smells. Each axon hillock is capable of processing more combinations than there are stars in the sky. Each new combination stored by an axon hillock could be recording a new set of relationship links remembered by the mind.  The doctor's brain could be storing all the D/S links known to him as combinations in the relevant axon hillocks of his brain.

Fourth, instant global communication is working today as a practical reality. Millions of cells of spreadsheets are instantly reflecting single inputs into cells. The doctor observes a symptom. Within the instant of his observation, the feedback and feed forward links of his brain could be informing all related D/S axon hillocks of the presence of the symptom as a combinatorial transmission.  Only the D/S link of Disease X could be recalling the combination and recognizing the symptom.

Fifth, on not recognizing the symptom, all other disease related D/S hillocks could be instantly inhibiting their impulses. But, the D/S links of Disease X could be continuing to fire. Those firing D/S link would be recalling past complaints, treatments, patients, references and signs of Disease X, thus confirming the diagnosis, in the doctor's mind.  In this manner, rational axon hillocks could be enabling the prescient speed and wisdom of the mind.

Sixth, specific regions of the brain are known to be identifying sensory inputs, recognizing objects and events, triggering emotions and providing motor responses. Axon hillocks of those regions could be rationally responding to inputs and triggering those functions. The axon hillocks of the amygdala could be storing memories of threats during life, or during prehistoric encounters. The sight of a snake could be triggering fear signals from the organ. Those signals could be triggering reflexive flight or freeze responses out of the axon hillocks of the motor regions.

Finally, common sense can calm such reflexive responses through routines for self awareness, as suggested in these pages. Sound judgement
can be toughening the mind by making it patient and by controlling its temper. Grief or guilt will not be shattering experiences; reason can be the tool for conquering fear; for escaping from the well of sudden disappointment; avoiding dissatisfaction with life; avoiding despair over the lack of meaning in life. These urged routines, which provide effective mind control, are now benefiting thousands of people.

W
orldwide interest in this website is acknowledging its rationale. Not metaphysical theories, but pattern recognition and infinite axon hillock memories could be explaining the astonishing speed of human intuition. Several years after 1989, a Nobel Prize began acknowledging combinatorial olfactory codes. Over three decades, this website has been assembling evidence of how neural pattern recognition is powering emotional and physical behaviors. It has been receiving over 2 million page views from over 150 countries.

How Does The Mind Work?
What Are The Early Beginnings Of The Nervous System?

The mind senses and responds to patterns, using a neural mechanism, which originated in the early animals. Before the arrival of animals, only multicellular organisms existed in the primeval waters on earth. They moved about and swallowed, or expelled food by contracting or expanding their cells. Such expansion and contraction was achieved through chemical signals, the forerunners of hormones. But such chemical activity diffused too slowly over larger bodies of cells and could not deliver targeted messages. A new nervous system solved these problems.

How Does The Mind Work?
What Are The Capabilities Of The Neuron?

The electrically activated system had four powerful capabilities. First, receptor cells could sense the touch of food, obstacles, or danger and fire their signals. Second, electrical signals could trigger expansion, or contraction of specific groups of motor cells. Third, neurons could interpret receptor signals and dispatch focused signals to trigger contraction, or expansion of specific parts of the cell body. Fourth, such electrical signals could be sent across the longer distances of a body of cells.

How Does The Mind Work?
What Were The Earliest Neural Functions?

The primitive Hydra, a branched tubular animal was controlled by such a neural network. The network functioned between its outside and its internal digestive cavity. Depending on where it sensed touch, the net triggered contraction of an appropriate part of its tube or its tentacles. Remembered combinations enabled the neurons to fire just the right signals to make the animal move about, or push food particles into its mouth. Strong contractions expelled indigestible material through the same orifice. Even in a primitive animal, phenomenal nerve cell memories enabled this nervous system to perceive the world, interpret it and suitably control its body for survival.

How Does The Mind Work?
How Do The Receptors Work?

Compared to the elementary touch sensitivity of the Hydra, the human mind converts the multi-sensory perceptions of millions of isolated world events into nerve signals. Typically, when an odorant molecule locks on to an odor receptor, calcium channels in the membranes of the nerves open and calcium ions pour inside, generating the electrical charge of a nerve signal. Such signals are carried by peripheral nerves to the central nervous system. Chemoreceptors in the tongue report taste. Other receptors are massed together to form sense organs such as the eye and the ear. Chemicals from damaged tissue cause nociceptors to fire and report pain.

There are more receptors, which fire signals to indicate recognition of sharp pain, burning pain, cool or warm temperature, itching, muscle contraction, muscle burn because of lactic acid, joint movements, soft touch, mechanical stress, tickling, flushing, hunger and thirst! The mind constantly monitors the internal and external environment with its receptors, which are sensitive to a massive range of air and liquid molecules, light patterns, sound waves and critical bodily events.

How Does The Mind Work? 
What Is Event Recognition?

The signals which monitor the environment are routed to the primary areas of the cortex. Within milliseconds, the signals jump to the secondary areas, which integrate the signal combinations from the other half of the body. This integration handles binocular vision and stereophonic sound. The combined signals travel to a complex set of neural organs, which make sense of these signals. They identify objects and events. Since the failure of any one of these organs causes a loss of a particular ability of the mind, science has been able to identify the functions of many of these organs.

The somesthetic organ receives touch sensory signals. If this region is damaged, a patient cannot feel the hardness of steel, or the softness of velvet. The somesthetic association organ recognizes objects by touch. If this organ alone is damaged, a patient can feel an object, but will not know what it is. If blindfolded, she cannot identify a pair of scissors held in her hand. When the speech association organ is damaged, a patient knows the object, but is unable to name it. These organs are powered by massive combinatorial nerve cell memories of relationships between the senses and objects and events. Once events are identified, the mind responds with motor actions.

How Does The Mind Work?
What Does The Amygdala Do?

The earliest mechanism acted to avoid pain. Nature had identified damage to the body by generating pain signals. It also developed the amygdala, an organ, which could remember which sensory signals accompanied an experience of pain. With its intensely sensitive response to sensory signals related to pain experiences, the organ exists in fishes, amphibians, reptiles, birds and mammals. The amygdala outputs signals, which are interpreted as either fear, or anger emotions. Emotions set off attitudes and behaviors.

The body responds to each emotion with a precisely focused pattern of thought and behavior. On sensing danger, the amygdala sends fear signals to the brainstem, triggering (typically jumpy) avoidance behaviors. Fear signals raise blood pressure and heart beats. Fear, anger, or disgust signals to the facial nerves generate appropriate expressions. The amygdala is an early warning system, which triggers your emotions faster than your conscious awareness. Beginning with a simple response to fear, nature developed a wide range of emotional signals, which generate behaviors to cope with most situations in life.

How Does The Mind Work?
What Is The Role Of The Insula?

Emotional signals set off complex patterns of coping behaviors, built up over millions of years. The amygdala triggered primitive attack, or withdraw responses for reptiles. Life moved gradually on to the more cooperative lives of herds. Groups of animals had better survival chances. Nature developed the insula, which triggers social emotions. The insula triggers the pain of guilt and shame to discourage antisocial behaviors. Eisenberger's research at UCLA reports neural pain circuits were found to be activated, when a person suffers social rejection. The insula also triggers the positive emotions of love, gratitude and compassion.

The Insula also carries mirror neurons, which can sense the signs of stress in a neighbor, including facial expressions, and can proceed to internally imitate those emotions. For the whole herd, fear spread fear and relaxation brought calm. The guilty became subdued and the compassionate assisted the weak. Emotions triggered coping patterns of behavior. By sensing and sharing the pain of their group, animals acted to protect each other as well as the weak and the young.

How Does The Mind Work?
What Is The Size Of Human Memory?

Human survival is enabled by a massive assembly of knowledge in the body and in the nervous system. Genetic codes decide the structure of a fingernail, or an eyelash. The genetic DNA codes of a human being, if tightly packed into 500 page books, will fill the Grand Canyon 50 times over with those books! A similarly unimaginable store of neural combinatorial codes control the signals of neural organs. Intuition works by instantly inhibiting whole sections of the system, when it does not recognize a received signal.

How Does The Mind Work?
How Does Intuition Process Combinatorial Memories?

Typically, combinatorial memories in the spinal cord smoothly orchestrate the movement of 60,000 muscles, inhibiting opposing actions, sometimes up to 10,000 times a second! This intuitive process enables each neural organ to be independent, while the received impulses grant them sensitivity to every other organ. With millions of dendritic inputs, each neural organ can monitor the myriad dimensions of the mind. Vision can have an impact on pain and despair, on blood pressure.

How Does The Mind Work?
How Does Intuition Work With Inhibition?

Inhibition works to eliminate alternatives for every decision of the nervous system. As someone said "When a tiger bounds towards you, what should your response be? Should you file your toenails? Do a cartwheel? Sing a song? Is this the moment to run an uncountable number of randomly generated response possibilities through the decision rule?" Animals cannot afford to freeze into immobility, unable decide between chewing grass and drinking water. Intelligent action, pivotal for survival, mandates a swift logic, which ceaselessly narrows possibilities down to a single answer. Nature's logic evaluates myriad known possibilities to choose one option for action. If the choice is to chew grass, the drive to quench thirst is instantly inhibited.

How Does The Mind Work?
What Do The Prefrontal Regions Do?
The prefrontal regions (PFR) have access to the global wisdom of the mind. The signals fired in this organ grant you a multi-dimensioned view of life. Its combinatorial memories process the unemotional judgments of the mind.  Unfortunately, the early warning systems in the amygdalae react to negative events before the prefrontal regions can truly assess a situation. While it takes around 300 milliseconds for the PFR to become aware of a disturbing event, the amygdalae react to it within 20 milliseconds!

The results cause you gut wrenching turmoil. Sadly, the knee-jerk responses of these emotion organs cause you to overreact to the world around you. Their momentary mischief in the morning can subconsciously trouble you the whole day. An awareness of the mechanism can enable you to effectively still their ill effects and recover your peace of mind.

How Does The Mind Work?
What Is The Real I?
Just like your visual experience of the sunset, the claustrum provides the current real time view of the system to all relevant regions of your brain. We call that view "consciousness." It is a subset of human perception. Just the way it recognizes a living intelligence in a barking dog, the brain recognizes an "I" as a real entity.  The "I" has a three dimensional view of the world, makes decisions and experiences life.  The brain locates this entity in an actual physical location, behind our eyes and in front of the back of our heads.

Even with eyes closed, the brain knows the positions of our arms and legs relative to such an "I." Muscles, tendons, joints, and the inner ear contain proprioceptors, (stretch receptors), that provide this information. The brain concludes that "I" is a physical entity with a mysterious perception of the world. An independent "I" in the brain is no more real than an "I" in a thermostat. Such an "I" is a confused mental construct.

How Does The Mind Work?
How Does Attention Help?

Your brain has this instant ability to switch your focus by inhibiting irrelevant neural activity. Your attention can be diverted by any region.  A pinprick on your skin can divert your attention.  An animal either drinks, or it chews grass. The system usually chooses. The choice inhibits irrelevant systems, and activates the motor systems, which then focus you.  Your PFR can also set your focus of attention.  If you decide to count up to ten, your anger will reduce. You will become more tactful towards your opponent. An awareness of the physical symptoms accompanying emotions can also instantly still activity in the amygdala. This website presents you with ways to still negative emotions. But, all these require a little practice.

How Does The Mind Work?
What Is Combinatorial Coding?

This brief description assumes that the wisdom of combinatorial coding makes the mind work. That process can explain the most powerful living intelligence on earth. Whatever may be your condition in life, nature has granted you this immense wisdom. Its pattern recognition mechanisms enable you to feel the emotions of joys, wonder and awe. They enable you to fathom and understand the complexity of the cosmos. Make that mind work for your peace and happiness.

This page was last updated on 31-Dec-2013



Jordan Peterson - Happiness
Can Artificial Intelligence Replace Humans?

JUST THINK...   What happens when you are beginning to talk? Your nervous system is picking an emotion, articulating an idea around it, choosing apt words from a vocabulary of thousands of words, arranging them in lexical and grammatical order and adjusting the pitch of your voice. Before you speak you are having no consciousness of the words you will use. Who is actually taking charge?  This question leads to the question "What is consciousness itself?" Is consciousness a spirit living in a human body?  Is it a life form that emerges from the nervous system?  This is the living hard problem of consciousness. 


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