In Organ Transplants
reported cellular memory in organ transplants points to the presence
of combinatorial nerve cell memories in those organs. Numerous organ
transplant receivers have reported a change in their personalities by
seemingly acquiring the memories, experiences and emotions of their
deceased donors. There is evidence that organs in the nervous system
do store memories through combinatorial coding by nerve cells. Such
coded memories have been reported to enable the olfactory system to
recognize odors (Nobel Prize 2004).
The major organs, such as the heart, kidney and liver are known to contain large populations of neurons. Inherited and acquired combinatorial memories in these networks could enable transferred organs to recognize and respond to patterns familiar to the original donors. Behaviors and emotions are known to be modulated by the interactive communications between these organs and the sympathetic and parasympathetic systems. The changes in the behaviors and outlooks of transplant recipients may be triggered by the emotional signals fed back to the limbic system from these transferred organs.
are a few reported cases, where the recipients of heart, liver and
organ transplants acquired some of the behavior and emotional traits
of their donors.
has discovered links between combinatorial nerve cell memories and
the control of bodily functions.
people who receive donated corneas have not reported any special
effects, individual body cells may not carry complex behavior
memories. Only memories in nerve cells of large organs may produce
a heart transplant, nerve cell links to the brain are severed.
Messages from the heart may use alternate pathways.
website suggests that behaviors and memories are controlled by
emotion signals from the limbic system.
scientists have suggested that organs, including the heart, kidney
and liver do contain neural networks, which are self contained
transplanted organs may respond to people and places recognized by
their donors. These responses could be interpreted as remembered
memories by the recipients. The Hospital Grapevine Theory supports
drugs may only assist in the recall of the recipient's own memories.
study of more reported cases may reveal secrets of emotional
Over 2 Million Page Views - How Did It Happen?
I am not a physician, but an engineer. Way back in 1989, I noticed the unique speed of an AI algorithm for disease recognition and pieced together the implications of that phenomenon. The same algorithm could be applied by the nervous system for the management of its stored knowledge! The axon hillocks of neurons could store and retrieve memories of trillions of links between symptoms and known diseases. Neurons respond to received impulses in 5 milliseconds. The axon hillocks of neurons could use an elimination algorithm to eliminate (inhibit) unrelated relationships. Since its symptoms were not linked in memory to any other known disease, a doctor could locate one disease in milliseconds.
Functional regions could use precise combinatorial codes in feedback and feed forward links with incalculable eloquence. The axon hillocks of the neurons could store and retrieve memories of ancient jungle encounters and herd struggles. They could carry memories of the indications of danger, of strategies for survival and of motor control responses. One region could link sensory signals to potential trouble from people and things. That could cause other neural organs to trigger anger, or fear. In turn, these emotion signals could make a person flee, or fight. An insult could trigger stress in a split second. On the other hand, the self awareness tool could inhibit stress and still the mind.
Not metaphysical theories, but millisecond pattern recognition could explain human brilliance and folly. It could also offer the means for its control. Several years after my fortunate insight, a Nobel Prize acknowledged the astonishing power of combinatorial pattern recognition. Over 30 years, I have assembled much evidence supporting neural pattern recognition and published three books about artificial intelligence and the nervous system.
Cellular Memory In Organ Transplants
What Is The Evidence For Cellular Memories?
proposing the presence of a cellular memory, Gary Schwartz, has
documented the cases of 74 patients, 23 of whom were heart transplant
recipients. These patients are reported to have acquired some traits
of their donors. For Schwartz, the concept of a cellular memory
applies to any organ, which has interconnected cells, including
hearts, kidneys, liver and even muscles. These cases indicate
transfers from donors to recipients of clear recollections of people,
events and places, their likes and dislikes and behavioral
eight-year-old girl, who received the heart of a murdered
ten-year-old girl, began having vivid and recurring nightmares about
the murder. The detailed descriptions of the murderer given by the
recipient to the police were used to find and convict the man, who
had murdered the donor. “The time, the weapon, the place, the
clothes he wore, what the little girl he killed had said to him...
everything the little heart transplant recipient reported was
completely accurate.” While such claims may appear to be
outlandish, there may be a reasonable explanation for them.
her book, A
Change of Heart,
Claire Sylvia writes of identifying a man named Tim, whose heart she
had received. She reportedly acquired his love for chicken nuggets,
green peppers and beer. Sylvia found herself drawn toward cool colors
and no longer dressed in the bright reds and oranges she used to
prefer. She became more aggressive and impetuous, in a manner
resembling the personality of her donor.
young man came out of his transplant surgery and said to his mother,
"everything is copasetic." It was later discovered that the
word had been a signal, used by the donor and his wife, whenever they
made up, following an argument. The last argument just before the
donor's fatal accident and had not been settled.
forty seven-year-old Caucasian male, who received a heart from an
African-American teenager, was reported to have acquired a taste for
classical music. The donor had been an avid violin player. In another
case, William Sheridan, a retired catering manager with poor drawing
skills, suddenly developed artistic talents after a heart transplant
operation. He discovered that the man who donated his new heart had
been a keen artist.
B. Doey, a liver transplant patient, reports changes in food
preferences and greater love for children & music. She became
more talkative and quicker to express her opinions, which she would
have kept private before surgery. Another liver transplant patient
dreamed of happy childhood experiences of a young girl on a farm
playing on a swing with her father. She discovered that those were
the actual experiences of the donor. In another case, a kidney
transplant patient reported an interest in new hobbies and a craving
for new foods – changes linked to the preferences of the
Memory In Organ Transplants
What is the background Combinatorial Logic?
has discovered links between nerve cell memories and the control of
bodily functions. The olfactory process identifies millions of
volatile chemical compounds in the air. To identify each smell, the
brain must store a specific memory for that smell. Such massive
memories are stored as combinatorial codes. When a particular
molecule binds to a specific olfactory receptor cell, it fires an
impulse, which becomes a single firing element in a geographically
arranged array of olfactory cell addresses. Combinatorial memories
match the firing patterns in such arrays to identify breathed in
molecules. Remembered combinatorial codes exist for each one of the
millions of molecules identified by the brain.
announced (Nobel Prize 2004) that the chemical octanol was found to
be recognized by a combination of four different glomeruli. As
against this, octanic acid, in which the hydroxyl group of octanol is
replaced by a carboxyl group, was recognized by a different
combination. While they have only small molecular differences,
octanol has an orangy rose-like scent, octanic acid smells like
sweaty feet. Combinatorial memories enable the olfactory system to
identify an infinite number of such chemical compounds in the air at
very low concentrations.
There is so much evidence that pattern recognition and combinatorial memories
enable various neural organs to perform their unique functions. These
memories can enable an intricate network of several types of neurons,
transmitters, proteins, and support cells to transmit precise event
recognition and motor control messages. Ordinary cell memories do not
convey such extensive information.
Memory In Organ Transplants
Are they Cellular
of memories have not been widely reported in simpler transplant
cases. People who receive donated corneas have not reported any such
side-effects. It is evident that ordinary cells in our body do not
carry such extensive behavior changing memories. Only the assembled
combinatorial memories of a large population of neurons, as in the
case of the heart, have caused noticeable memory transfer events to
take place. The most significant changes in behaviors and emotions
have been reported in the case of heart transplants. Dr. Andrew
Armour a pioneer in neurocardiology suggests that the brain has two
way communication links with the “little brain in the heart.” The
intelligence of neural brains in organs depend on memories stored in
Memory In Organ Transplants –
Do the Organs have Brains?
heart and brain communicate with each other via nerve fibers running
through the spinal column. However, in a heart transplant, these
nerve connections are severed and do not reconnect for an extended
period of time, if at all. The transplanted heart functions in its
new body using its own intact, intrinsic nervous system. An intricate
network of several types of neurons, transmitters, proteins, and
support cells allow it to function as an independent organ. The
combinatorial memories from the donor in these nerve cells operate
independently and send its neurological impulses to the brain through
various alternate pathways. These impulses reach the medulla, located
in the brain stem, where they have a regulatory role over many of the
blood vessels, glands and organs. Those impulses exercise new
controls over the emotions experienced by the heart transplant
Memory In Organ Transplants
How do Organs Influence Behavior?
If you imagine the brain as a pattern recognition network, then emotional
signals can control
the behavior and the memories of the system. A series of special
purpose organs linked to your limbic system, including the amygdala,
the hypothalamus, the insula and the prefrontal regions recognize and
respond to the patterns of events in your life. Their signals trigger
emotions, which instantly decide your attitudes and modify your
behavior. Aroused emotions trigger restlessness, excitation, and
agitation, preparing you for action. The nervous systems in the
heart, kidneys and liver trigger signals, which have impact on
emotions. Anger and fear contextually record the memories of
significant events in your life. A raised heartbeat can trigger
anxiety in the system and store memories of events causing the
is translated into neurological impulses by the heart’s nervous
system and sent from the heart to the brain through various pathways.
These impulses reach the medulla, located in the brain stem, where
they have a regulatory role over many of the blood vessels, glands
and organs. They reach higher centers of the brain, where they
influence “perception, decision making and other cognitive
Memory In Organ Transplants –
Do Emotions play a Role?
J. Andrew Armour suggests that the elaborate neural circuitry in the
heart enables it to act independently of the cranial brain – to
learn, remember, and even feel and sense. Leopold Auerbach discovered
a complex network of neurons in the intestines. Professor Wolfgang
Prinz suggested that these neurons may save information on physical
reactions to mental processes and feed back signals to influence
subsequent decisions - an intelligence, we refer to as “gut
Imagine that the remembered responses of the transferred
organs to the newly recognized people and events can influence the
experiences of the recipient. But, these organs cannot store visual
memories, because such memories have been reported to be triggered
from the visual regions. But association regions of the brain
recognize patterns in the environment and send recognition messages
through a few dedicated channels. Scientists have identified
individual neurons, which fire, when a particular person has been
when a recipient's brain analyzes the features of a person, who
significantly impressed the donor, the donated organ may feed back
powerful emotional messages, which signal recognition of the
individual. Such feedback messages occur within milliseconds and the
recipient will believe that she knows the person. The emotional
responses of the transplanted organs to the recipient's experiences
can subconsciously change every kind of behavior, including the
addition of aggressive tendencies, or of a love for music, or
Memory In Organ Transplants –
What is the Hospital Grapevine?
significant amount of information can be transferred from the donor
to the recipient through emotion signals. Hospitals do not disclose
donor information to recipients in order to protect the family
members on both sides. The Hospital Grapevine Theory suggest that
patients may be able to piece together information about the donor,
when they overhear discussions by the health-care staff around them.
Such discussions may have taken place, while the patient was
anesthetized. Emotional messages fed back from the transplanted
organs could create new patterns of familiarity around any newly
recognized personality, or event.
transfer of data from the donor organ would be transparent to the
recipient. If a recipient sees a person familiar to the donor, the
transplanted organ would send back strong emotional messages to the
brain. These neurochemical messages would instantly imprint the
emotion around the received details about the person. Subsequently,
the recipient would consider that person to be an intimately known
person, recalling the initially received details as known
descriptions of events would ring a bell, causing the recipient to
believe that the event was personally experienced, because of the
repeating and self reinforcing re-entrant emotional loops from the
transplanted organs. Most recognition processes occur in less than
300 milliseconds. With minimal sensory inputs, a recipient could come
to believe that a scene familiar to the donor was familiar to the
recipient, enabling the identification of the murderer by the
recipient, as reported above.
Memory In Organ Transplants
What is the Role of Immunosuppressive Drugs?
Paul Pearsall has studied the relationship between the brain, immune
system, and an individual’s life experiences. Immunosuppressive
drugs minimize the chances of rejection of the new, foreign heart by
suppressing the recipient’s immune system. Pearsall suggested that
these drugs could bring associations to donor experiences in
recipients. Scientists believe these drugs could act as psychotropic
stimulants that lower the patient’s “thresholds for
accessibility” and enhance their perception, allowing them to
recall memories they may have long forgotten.
suggests that the recipients are only recalling their own “forgotten”
memories. But, the changes in behavior and a new sense of familiarity
with people and places are not “forgotten,” but reported donor
memories. Combinatorial memories in transplanted organs can feed back
the donor's emotional signals, causing the recipient to change
behaviors and memories.
Memory In Organ Transplants
What are Molecules of Emotion?
Pert discovered that amino acid chains, known as neuropeptides, which
function as keys that fit into specific types of receptors located on
the surface of the heart. Such neuropeptide chains and their
receptors transmit messages between neural organs all over the body.
Suggesting that these are “Molecules of emotion,” Pert suggests
these amino acids carry emotion signals generated by many organs,
including the amygdala, the insula, the hypothalamus and the heart.
These signals are responses by such organs to perceived patterns in
links from the cranium through the spinal cord are severed for a
heart transplant, even preventing a patient from feeling chest pain.
Emotion signals are processed by the heart, based on its perceptions.
The peptides carry messages, but do not generate them. Emotional
messages from the donor's heart may be transmitted back to the brain
through these amino acid chains. Pert suggests that the amino acid
receptors in the brain may function better for more sensitive
recipients, making them better sense the signals from the donor
study in this field may reveal many new aspects of pattern
recognition by neural organs. The percentage of transplant
recipients, who actually do not feel any changes will indicate the
limiting conditions, which prevent the transfer of information from
the donor to the recipient. Since most reported cases of cellular
memories in organs report some changes in food or color preferences,
it is suggested that the more primitive feelings are transmitted by
all the transplanted organs. But cases of recognizing events and
people may be more in the case of heart transplants, since larger
combinatorial memories are transferred with the organ.
This page was last updated on 31-Dec-2013.
JUST THINK... What happens when you begin to talk? Your nervous system has picked an emotion. It has articulated an idea around it, chosen apt words from a vocabulary of thousands of words, arranged them in lexical and grammatical order and adjusted the pitch of your voice. Before you speak you've no consciousness of the words you will use. Who's actually in charge? This question leads to the question "What is consciousness itself?" Is consciousness a spirit living in a human body? Is it a mystical life form that emerges from the nervous system? This is the hard problem of consciousness.